Monday, May 25, 2020

Anthropology Cultural And Social Formation Of Gender And...

Anthropology 331 Detailed Paper Outline I. Introduction (203 words) A. Anthropology of gender provides a broad look at the issues surrounding the cultural and social formation of gender and ideas about gender. 1. Expands and allows for an unbiased view in the broad scoped discipline of Anthropology. 2. Endeavors to understand and interpret a wide range of significant issues in regards to the Anthropology of gender through encouraging comparative analysis in a cross cultural perspective. 3. The cross-cultural approach provides a way to address both the issues of gender in both developed industrialized societies as well as those of the developing societies. B. This term paper is constructed of six chapter summaries from the course text which focus on two significant themes in each chapter, along with four outside ideas of interest that have been researched individually. 1. Research topics will include cited research entailing four broad areas. a. Including the potential for human sex differences found in the primary auditory cortex b. The associations amongst women and power through a discourse analysis, of variation in language and gender, neural language networks at birth c. Highlighting the importance of recognizing that there are dissimilar constraints and views of menstruating women in unrelated religions. d. Gender differences in creativity II. Chapter 3. (224 words) A. The understanding of gender issues and universal subordination of women has long beenShow MoreRelatedStudy questions Essay1333 Words   |  6 PagesAnthr 110 Gender, Age and Culture Instructor: Franà §ois Larose Study Questions Fall 2012 Instructions: In preparation for the exams, here is a list of study questions for each chapter. What you need to know from the text is covered in these questions. For all these chapters, you need to be familiar with the definitions (technical terms) highlighted in the text. Also, while there will be no direct questions on the grey boxes in these chapters, I strongly suggest you read them. They provideRead MoreANTH 1120 Midterm Exam Review2818 Words   |  12 Pagesï » ¿Exam Review: TERMS Culture: The system of meanings about the nature of experience that are shared by a people and passed on from one generation to another, including the meanings that people give to things, events, activities, and people. Ethnocentrism: The tendency to judge the beliefs and behaviours of others from the perspective of one’s own culture. Ethnocentric Fallacy: The mistaken notion that the beliefs and behaviours of other cultures can be judged from the perspective of one’s own cultureRead More Culture and Race Essay1253 Words   |  6 Pagesthat everyone can accept or agree with. Franz Boas, an anthropologist in the early 20th Century, and his students, had a difficult time figuring out the objective of what culture is. Culture is about learning and shared ideas about behaviour. Although Boas and his students had a slightly different idea in mind. They ultimately reached a conclusion, a definition of culture in their view that is a contradiction in terms. Boas sates that, â€Å" culture was expressed through the medium of language butRead MoreEffect Of Gender And Gender Representation On Media1735 Words   |  7 PagesThe effect of gender and gender representation in media has been widely researched in various academic disciplines, including anthropology and communication studies. Similar gender role expe ctations are not just restricted to Western culture either. A study on gender representation in East Asian advertising by Michael Prieler is a demonstration of the influence of gendered communication. The research examines the male and female representation in the advertising of East Asian countries like HongRead MoreEvolution of the Hominids1290 Words   |  5 Pagesapelike brains and skulls, are less often thought to as human than hominids of the genus of Homo. Homo heidelbergensis are considered to be the most likely to form the line of ancestry of modern humans. Homo sapiens began to reach their modernity about 200,000 years ago. They began to exhibit behavioral towards modern era around 50,000 years ago. Humans have become the most cosmopolitan species at the earth that established their populations on all parts of earth except the smallest, driest, andRead MoreWhy Are women Paid Less than Men? The Gender Gap1371 Words   |  6 PagesPaid Less Than Men? The Gender Gap Introduction The equality between men and women is an integral part of human rights, it is also a prerequisite for democracy and social justice. Any democratic state seeks to promote gender equality in all spheres of life. Despite the creation of a strong legal framework to ensure the principle of equality of both sexes, the gap between men and women about their capabilities remains significant (Pomeroy, 72). One of the criteria of gender equality is equal pay forRead MoreAn Analysis of Prairiescapes: Mapping Food, Loss, and Longing933 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Martin Manalansan received his PhD from the University of Rochester in 1997. He has broad research interests that range from sociocultural anthropology, sexuality and gender, immigration and globalization ¦critical theory, performance, public health, Filipino diaspora, Asian Americans ¦and the Philippines, (Martin F. Manalansan). Manalansan is a prolific writer and author of books such as Global Divas: Filipino Gay Men in the Diaspora, which is published in Durham, North Carolina by the DukeRead MoreIs The Root Of All Evil? Essay1509 Words   |  7 Pagesto the ideas of Dave van Pattern who suggests in his piece that those who study sociology believe men are the root of all evil. Pattern was a political science graduate, and I myself as a political science major understood where his earlier beliefs about men s rights came fr om and I also applaud his later transition away from the previous notions of masculinity. Furthermore, my feminism was built up by largely female professors in my courses ranging from Environmental Science, Anthropology, EthicsRead MoreJesuit Education Essay1489 Words   |  6 Pagesof their souls. . The early Jesuits experienced how a profound a conversion of heart can occur when one’s love of God leads one to engage suffering and injustice. Furthermore, they understood that their call to be ‘men for others’ expanded beyond cultural, economic and national boundaries. In 1975, the 32nd General Congregation (GC 32) further elaborated on the mission of Jesuit education as the service of the faith and the promotion of justice.† This proclamation challenged Jesuits and all whoRead MoreHow Poor Intercultural Communication Affects International Commerce and Foreign Policy1450 Words   |  6 PagesInternational Commerce and Foreign Policy: France Opposes Turkey Entering the European Union Communication within one cultural group sharing traditions and national or regional identity is often effortless. The social and cultural meanings between the same cultures in regard to communication are understood the way they are intended. When discourse happens within members of the same social groups; they will communicate, talk, discuss in similar places that all members of that culture attend or visit like

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Education A Western Way Of Viewing Education - 1529 Words

Education: Education is invaluable when it comes to looking at child poverty and the way in which this issue effects New Zealand communities. MÄ ori overall tend to have lower pass rates at all levels of NCEA than European New Zealanders. This alone however is a very much western way of viewing education. It measures academic success against exams that a very much created through western thought processes that may not accurately portray the ways in MÄ ori learn and achieve. Education is both an outcome and leading factor in the cycle of Child Poverty in New Zealand as with such a high importance placed on tertiary education today it is harder to obtain reasonable or higher paying jobs without such higher education. But poverty in itself†¦show more content†¦However, it also needs to be questioned as whether or not systems such as NCEA do truly benefit and assess everyone equally or whether they unintentionally favor those who prescribe to mainstream European discourse through the w ay questions and answers are structured or whether NCEA is an entire discourse on its own. Addressing Poverty: Hands outs vs. A Hand Up: How sustainable long term equitable solutions can be achieved. In order to reduce the disproportionate numbers of MÄ ori living in poverty an approach that incorporates MÄ ori discourses and acknowledges the past as well as the future is key. The WhÄ nau Ora Approach: The WhÄ nau Ora Approach is an approach to welfare that was launched in 2010 with the goal of empowering MÄ ori to be able to take charge of their own lives. It focuses on being able to achieve better livelihood outcomes in areas such as health, education, housing and employment (WhÄ nau Ora at a glance, 2016). This program incorporates the MÄ ori ideas around the importance of Community and WhÄ nau into an approach that will empower MÄ ori to be able to take charge of their own lives rather than being reliant on the government. By creating a strengths-based approach that is in line with MÄ ori ideas surrounding the importance of community and the collective a much more relatable and holistic program is created (Dale, O Brien, St John, 2011, P.34). The framework in which this approach is underpinned by seeksShow MoreRelatedGerman Culture and Lifestyle1252 Words   |  6 Pagescan lead to increased tension among differing cultures. German cultures have been known to ha ve a difficult past but if others view their lifestyles, dietary habits, health care, education, and recreational activities, other cultures may view them in a different light.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  German living is very similar to the American way of life; they both enjoy variety and a wholesome feeling to living life. There may be a few differences, but similarities are there. City living for Germans is mostly made upRead MoreThe Importance Of African American Education1559 Words   |  7 Pagesthe defining factors in determining the quality of education received by people in the United States ( Gordon, 1990; Williams Land, 2006). The western curriculum serves the cultural interest of whites, who have their roots in the European countries. It does not favor the cultural interest of African Americans, but it would only make sense that African American people are educated on true African history. The African American quest for education has been discussed by many African scholars and theRead MorePerfect Research Essay876 Words   |  4 Pagesunderstanding†. Based on theoretical framework, research can be either quantitative or qualitative. It is undeniably that research has become an essential for producing knowledge in numerous fields such as science, technology, design, psychology, education, and so on. Since the purpose of research is for advancement of human knowledge, the perfection of research has been a topic of argument of professionals. From my perspective, I agree that perfect research does not exist. As the name suggests, researchRead MoreDiverse Students May Learn Differently Than Their Peers Essay1157 Words   |  5 Pages When I first read this question I automatically thought of different ways that ethnically diverse students may learn differently than their peers. These included being better oral/auditory learners because of a focus on storytelling in their culture, or having an aversion to working independently because of the emphasis on community learning in their own culture. These were then things that ran through my head but when I was reading our textbook it told me something different, though no less extraordinaryRead MoreCree Poetic Discourse By Neal Mcleod1640 Words   |  7 PagesThe Power of Evolution In the essay â€Å"Cree Poetic Discourse†, the author Neal McLeod addresses an intellectual problem that the western academic writing approach harms the indigenous Cree narratives. According to McLeod, the Cree narrative process, which involves poetic thinking, embraces new possibilities and keeps changing (9). This evolution process not only depends on various occasions of speaking but also depends on different storytellers and audiences who absorb stories, thus allowing Cree poeticRead MoreThe Start of Child Labor Laws687 Words   |  3 Pages During the Early Modern Era the opinions toward children varied between different societies. In most civilizations children weren’t treated with any special treatments and were raised to be obedient workers and in turn affecting their education. In these societies children were brought depending on social status, and because of this bias many children were forced to hard labor. Though there are many regional and culture differences, at this time the world was opening up to reform and rebuildingRead MoreThe Great Gatsby : Coming Of Age Novel1453 Words   |  6 PagesGreat Gatsby is more of a postponed coming of age novel 1. The idea that the protagonist has remained mentally a child his/her entire life. a. Nick may have physically grown, but in a sense has remained enclosed in his mid-western morals. b. Although Nick may have gained an education and even fought in a war, he still has child-like innocence. 2. The protagonist is finally exposed to new ideologies that allow him to grow mentally between his late 20s and mid-40s. a. Fitzgerald starts off the novel withRead MoreChild Labour And Its Ethical Implications859 Words   |  4 Pages#2 This week we discussed the topic of child labour and its ethical implications. While this topic caused a great deal of discussion, I could not help but reflect upon how often western society was used to compare what was or was not ethically correct. Upon discussing the ethical philosophies related to the case, western society was continually used as the focus point to defend the ethical decisions. In my opinion, the ethical philosophies of Kantianism and Utilitarianism discussed in class can easilyRead MoreThe Tasks And Traditions Of Interpretation By Jane Mcauliffe1452 Words   |  6 PagesTasks and Traditions of Interpretation† and â€Å"Western Scholarship and The Qur’an†, interpret the Qur’an from two distinct points of view. The first article, â€Å"The Tasks and Traditions of Interpretation† by Jane McAuliffe introduces a famous commentator named Ali Ibn-al-JawzÄ « and explains his analysis on the different SurÄ s within the Qur’an. McAuliffe also introduces other famous commentators and compares them to Ibn al-JawzÄ «Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s view. In the article â€Å"Western Scholarship and the Qur’an† by Andrew RippinRead MoreAnalysis Of Orientalism, Criticizes And Confronts The Ideas Of Truth And Representation, By Edward Said1642 Words   |  7 PagesEdward Said in his book Orientalism, criticizes and confronts the ideas of truth and representation, â€Å"it is not ‘truth’ but representation† (p. 29). Our representations of the world do not always hold truth. Western countries, such as the US, have sculpted a media in which the enemy of the East, is at the forefront and represents an entire population and geographical location as something to fear. Said explains this as an â€Å"us vs. them† scenario â€Å"On the one hand there are Westerners, and on the other

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparison of Roman and American slavery - 760 Words

Comparison of Roman and Western Slavery Slavery is one of the most common entities between the Roman s society and the Western society in the late 1800 s. Both civilizations have many differences and similarities between their views on slavery, treatments of the slaves, and economics of slavery. Such similarities include the imprisonment of slaves, the cruel treatments towards slaves, and the legal status of slaves as their owner s property. However, despite the many differences, slavery between polar societies always has its differences. These differences include the rights of the slaves, the slave s origins, and the payment of the slaves. Through the comparison of slavery present in Western society of the later 1800 s and Roman†¦show more content†¦Another difference is the ability for the Roman slaves to rebel with a large force, while the American slaves only tried to run away. The Roman slaves created large slave armies, while the American slaves only created the secret underground railroad. Just as the Roman s gather together large quantities of slaves to create an army, Sparticus similarly was one of Rome s great heroes who shows the similaritiesShow MoreRelatedSocio-Historical Impact of ‚Äà ºRacism Is the Result of Slavery‚Äà ¹803 Words   |  4 PagesSocio-Historical impact of â€Å"Racism Is The Result Of Slavery† Human nature wants to cast people who are like oneself as better than people not like oneself. That bias requires very little encouragement when coupled with the tendency towards selective memory. This impairs the normal empathy that generally prevents people from casually harming their fellows. A little push from greed and viola. It ought to be observed that the vast majority of people sold into slavery from sub-Saharan Africa were captured andRead MoreThe Theory : A Theory On The Development Of Societies915 Words   |  4 Pagesranging from social, political, and economic beliefs that all build a society, where in the minds of white Americans in southern states, the institution of slavery was just another reality that seemed essential, traditional, and even a systematic justification. Those who were willing to set a challenge set forth by the abolitionists, defended slavery with pro-slavery arguments. The defenders of slavery included history, economics, religion, legitimacy, social good and even important principles, to furtherRead MoreIssues of Citizenship of Indigenous Populations in Republican Rome1601 Words   |  6 PagesTable of Contents Introduction 2 Indigenous populations in Republican Rome (ca. 500 BCE 31 BCE) 3 Citizenship in colonial era 4 IV Comparison and Contrast 5 Conclusion 7 References 8 Introduction The issues citizenship of indigenous populations in the Roman Republic and during the colonial era in Europe provides comprehensive information regarding how the indigenous populations were treated by Europeans. The right to get justice and to self-determine their politico-social life is the mainRead MoreAgriculture : Agriculture And Agriculture951 Words   |  4 Pagesfarming fad. Even though the taste was bitter in comparison to the sweeter taste of the expensive tobacco the high class smoked, it was widely viewed as the one thing that shaped the 17th and early 18th century America. The growing of tobacco then invaded every part of farming and life in the colonies of America. The production of tobacco in America made the south start grow and produce the profit. Cotton a plant that was first used and grown by the Romans in Egypt to make comfortable clothing for emperorsRead MoreThe American Civil War By Robert G. Tanner810 Words   |  4 PagesWhen one thinks about the American Civil War that waged from 1861-1864, the question at hand begs to be asked: what could the Confederacy have done to win the war? Ideally, according to Robert G. Tanner in his book Retreat to Victory? the idea that the south might have won the war had it used a different strategy might be impossible to answer. That being said, Tanner argues that amongst many theories that have developed over what the Confederacy could have done to win the Civil War, the strategyRead MoreThomas Jefferson And The United States Essay2197 Words   |  9 Pagesinvolved in their government. He found this to be an essential part of a free government, and it was something Americans lacked when they were under British rule. This same idea correlates with the main ideology that the Roman est ablished their own republic around. Jefferson also expressed the duty of a man to be one with the law. That is main idea that stems from the republic that the Roman set up during ancient times. In Rome â€Å"one was known by his deeds in the public service, his accomplishmentsRead MoreThe Hypocrisy of American Slavery, Through the Eyes of Frederick Douglass1587 Words   |  7 PagesFrederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself is a powerful book in many respects. Douglass invites you to vicariously witness the monstrous atrocities he experienced during the antebellum period; a time when said atrocities were not only encouraged, but looked highly upon. Throughout his narrative, Douglass expresses his exponentially growing anger and fortitude. When the reader arrives at The Appendix, it soon becomes that much more apparent that the vice of slavery that is most troublesomeRead MoreSimilarities between Martin Luther Kings Letter from Birmingham Jail and Jonathan Swifts A Modest Proposal1358 Words   |  6 Pagesthe two essays. Surprisingly, a side-by-side comparison also yields many similarities between the two works. The most obvious similarity between the two essays is the overarching theme of the subject matter. In both essays, the writers address deeply-entrenched social injustices. For example, in Letter From Birmingham Jail, King, in his highly-impassioned and evocative style, submits a powerful essay that addresses racial segregation in the American South during the 1950s and 1960s. In his letterRead MoreThe Slavery Of The United States1710 Words   |  7 Pageslabor. But Slavery as we know it now is not at all as it was in the past. Slaves in Babylon were allowed to own land; slaves in Greece and Rome were afforded privileges based on their status, and was mostly owned by the state. While there were incidences of cruelty, for the most part they were isolated. The Muslims kept slaves as well, and while the Qur’an doesn’t speak against it directly, it espouses good treatment of them and in particular the females. There is altogether no comparison in theRead MoreRacia l Differences Between African Americans And Europeans1326 Words   |  6 Pagesparts towards its development. The first part is through the â€Å"hierarchic difference† between African-Americans and Europeans, which was established years ago and is the simplest feature of the development. Basically, it is the established belief of Europeans’ academic dominance over that of Africans, and the view of Africans as ignorant and savage beast, not even humans. This belief is indeed how slavery was formed. The second stage of the construction of Africanist is a bit more complex. This one is

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

My Grandfather and My Guitar Essay Example For Students

My Grandfather and My Guitar Essay This quarter I wasnt able to go to any big or popular concert; but something I do get to do is attend and listen to my grandmas and grandpas fiddle band. Both of my grandparents play in a local band in Quebec, Canada. My grandma plays the piano and the fiddle and my grandpa plays any type of guitar. My grandpa can play anything from steel guitars to ukuleles. His main part in the band is playing the classical guitar. Their band sounds like the older country folk songs with a little bit of My grandpa can play anything from steel guitars to ukuleles. His main part in the band is playing the classical guitar. Their band sounds like the older country folk songs with a little bit of bluegrass in it. Their band has one piano player, one fiddler, and two guitar players. It used to be bigger but they are so old that a lot of my grandparents friends, from the band, have passed away. Every year my whole family and I get to visit them for a week and we end up listening to them play in it. Their band has one piano player, one fiddler, and two guitar players. It used to be bigger but they are so old that a lot of my grandparents friends, from the band, have passed away. Every year my whole family and I get to visit them for a week and we end up listening to them play. This time we all went to Washington to celebrate my grandparents anniversary. My grandpa brought his steel guitar and his steel stringed acoustic guitar and my grandma brought her fiddle and her piano. The rest of their friends from the band came to and brought the amps and other equipment. They played songs for all the family and friends who came out to celebrate their anniversary. When I listened to the band, I noticed that this time they played more of a Hawaii beat song with the steel guitar. They had the classic two count beat count with the bass note starting the beat. It was nice they played a couple of songs like that because we all got to slow dance and sway to the beat. Their band sounds like a well organized band with everything tuned together and everyone on the same page. Most of their songs they played were songs they had made themselves. More of their songs were slow to medium and would more serenade you than rock you. The sound coming from the speakers was perfect in volume because if they had it on any louder than some of the older people there would have died. Everything was amplified even including the piano. I really liked the way they presented themselves to the family and friends and it was a great night. I think the instrument that stood out to me the most was the steel stringed guitar that my grandpa was playing because it was the instrument that played the main chorus of the songs and just left a great sound with the band. The person who really got me started playing guitar would have to be my grandpa because he gave us two of his guitars and later on helped me gain experience with playing. He would teach me chords and picking patterns whenever we came over and it was always fun to jam along with him once I got the hang of playing. Most everyone has started guitar to show off to their friends but the reason I started was because what it brings into your life with putting in the effort and heart. .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417 , .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417 .postImageUrl , .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417 , .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417:hover , .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417:visited , .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417:active { border:0!important; } .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417:active , .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417 .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u859e013b94f500db389aeda2d0d9f417:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Healthy Fast Food EssayI liked attending the performance where there werent any crazy teens that bump into you or the loud speakers which burn your eardrums after youre done. It was a mellow performance and fun at the same time. I did go to the battle of the bands this quarter but I would have to say the battle of the bands wasnt as good as my grandparents performance. The battle of the bands was really loud and the sound quality wasnt too good either. Im glad I got to attend all the concerts of this year and hope to maybe host my own in the future.

Friday, April 10, 2020

After The Russo-Japnese War Of 1905, In Which Russia Had Lost, A Revol

After the Russo-Japnese war of 1905, in which Russia had lost, a revolution occurred. This being the second after an unsuccessful one in 1825. It appeared that discontent with the public would cause Czar Nicholas II to form a constitutional monarchy. A change such as this one would not have satisfied either the czar or his opponents. While the public wanted democratic freedom the czar did not want to lose control of the peasants. This one would also be unsuccessful. Two more revolutions soon would occur and be successful. The first revolution occurred during World War I while the Russian military was pressed by war with Germany. The March Revolution of 1917 led to the abdication of Nicholas and the installment of a provisional government. The leader of this new government was Alexander Kerensky, who was eventually forced from power and later fled to America. The armies that were at war were taken command by Czar Nicholas in the fall of 1915, leaving a power vacuum in the capitol city of St. Petersburg. Suddenly in March of 1917 the collapse of the government came. Mass demonstrations were spawned by food riots, strikes and war protests. The army refused to fire upon demonstrators. On March 14, a Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies was elected, and it formed the provisional government which later caused the removal of Nicholas. The leading men in the October 1917 revolution were Lenin and Leon Trotsky. Years later, on Joseph Stalin's orders, Trotsky was assassinated. No one could take action against the Bolsheviks who were subverting the army, passing out fire-arms, and appointing their supporters as commissars of military units. On the night of November 6-7 the Bolsheviks attacked, and gained control of the capitol after several days of fighting. Meanwhile, Lenin had to deal with the war. Peace negotiations failed, so Lenin dealt straight with the Germans. Lenin had to pick, either a loss of territory, or the loss of his new government. He chose in favor of his government. At the time of the meeting to approve a peace treaty, the Bolsheviks changed their name to the Russian Communist Party. The treaties effects for Lenin were negative. Patriotic indignation at the betrayal of Russia to Germany surfaced quickly, even in the army. This division led to a civil war that lasted until late 1920. On August 19, 1991, eight of Mikhail Gorbachev's associates planned to remove him from office, while slowly disintegrating the 74-year old Communist state of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Among the people cooperating in this plan were the KGB, the vice president, and the military. Standing firm for this action was Boris Yeltsin, who barricaded himself in the Russian embassy with advisors, coming out only to rouse up the people against Gorbachev. Only 72 hours later Mikhail was back in Moscow. From the moment the plot had failed, Gorbachev's power began to fade rapidly. He was forced to resign office, and communism was banned. Mikhail t ried to keep some form of government together by getting a union treaty signed, but this was an economic federation, not a national treaty. On December 8, 1991, the republics of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus formed a federation and moved the capitol from Moscow to Minsk. The Commonwealth of Union States, as this new federation was called, marked the end of the Soviet Union, and tried to find new relationships between other federations. The parliament building was attacked on October 4, 1993, to stop a revolt by heavily armed legislatures who opposed Yeltsin and his ideas. Yeltsin had dissolved parliament on September 21 of the same year. After the assault, opposing legislatures voted to impeach Yeltsin and place his vice-president, Aleksandr Rutskoi, as president. In the assault 142 people were killed, and the White House, as the building is called was destroyed. If these actions had been successful, everything Yeltsin had worked for could have been lost.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Tula de Hidalgo (Mexico) Toltec Capital City of Tollan

Tula de Hidalgo (Mexico) Toltec Capital City of Tollan The archaeological ruins of Tula (known as Tula de Hidalgo or Tula de Allende) are located in the southwestern part of the Mexican state of Hildalgo about 70 kilometers (45 miles) northwest of Mexico City. The site is located within the alluvial bottoms and adjacent uplands of the Tula and Rosas Rivers, and it lies partially buried beneath the modern town of Tula de Allende. Based on extensive ethnohistorical research by Wigberto Jimenez-Moreno and archaeological investigations by Jorge Acosta, Tula is considered the likely candidate for Tollan, the legendary capital of the Toltec Empire between the 10th and 12th centuries AD. In addition, Tulas construction bridges the Classic and Postclassic periods in Mesoamerica, during the period when the power of Teotihuacan and the southern Maya lowlands were fading, to be replaced by political alliances, trade routes and art styles at Tula, and at Xochicalco, Cacaxtla, Cholula and Chichà ©n Itz. Chronology Tollan/Tula was established during the Epiclassic period, about 750 AD as a fairly small town (ca 3-5 square kilometers or 1.2-1.5 square miles), as the Teotihuacan empire was crumbling. Colonial (after 1550 AD)Late Postclassic (1230-1550 AD)Early Postclassic (900-1230)Epiclassic (750-900) During the height of Tulas power, between AD 900 and 1100, the city included an area of some 13 sq km (5 sq mi), with an estimated population perhaps as high as 60,000. Tulas architecture was set in a large diversity of environments, from a reedy marsh to adjacent hills and slopes; within this varied landscape are hundreds of mounds and terraces, representing residential structures in a planned city scape, with alleys, passageways and paved streets. The heart of Tula was its civic-ceremonial district, called the Sacred Precinct, a large open quadrangular plaza surrounded by two L-shaped buildings, as well as Pyramid C, Pyramid B and the Quemado Palace. The Quemado Palace has three large rooms, sculpted benches, columns and pilasters. Tula is justly famed for its art, including two interesting friezes worth discussing in detail: the Coatepantli Frieze and the Vestibule Frieze. Coatepantli Frieze The Coatepantli Frieze (Mural of the Serpents) is the best known piece of art work at Tula, believed to date to the early Postclassic period. It is a carved into a 2.2 meter (7.5 foot) high free-standing wall running for 40 m (130 ft) along the north side of Pyramid B. The wall seems to channel and restrict pedestrian traffic on the north side, creating a narrow enclosed passageway. It was named coatepantli, which is the Aztec (Nahuatl) word for serpent, by excavator Jorge Acosta. The Coateplantli Friese was made from slabs of local sedimentary stone carved in relief and brightly painted. Some of the slabs were borrowed from other monuments. The frieze is capped by a row of spiral-shaped merlons; and its facade shows several reclining human skeletons intertwined with serpents. Some scholars have interpreted this as a representation of the feathered serpent in pan-Mesoamerican mythology, called Quetzalcoatl; others point to the Classic Maya Vision Serpent. (see Jordan for some interesting discussion). The Frieze of the Caciques (a.k.a. the Vestibule frieze) The Vestibule Frieze, while lesser known than that of the Coateplantli, is no lest interesting. It is a carved, stuccoed and brightly painted frieze that illustrates a line of ornately dressed men walking in a procession, located on the interior walls of Vestibule 1. Vestibule 1 itself is an L-shaped colonnaded hall that links Pyramid B with the main plaza. The hallway had a sunken patio and two hearths, and 48 square pillars supported a roof. The frieze is on a nearly square bench, measuring 94 centimeters (37 inches) high by 108 cm (42 in) wide in the northwest corner of Vestibule 1. The frieze itself is 50 cm x 8.2 m (19.7 in x 27 ft). The 19 men shown in the frieze have been interpreted at various times as local chiefs (caciques), priests or warriors, but based on the architectural setting, composition, costumes and color, these figures represent merchants, people who were engaged in long-distance trade. Sixteen of the 19 figures carry staffs, one appears to wear a backpack, and one carries a fan, all elements associated with travelers (see Kristan-Graham for more). Sources This article is a part of the About.com guide to the Toltec Civilization, and the Dictionary of Archaeology. Castillo Bernal S. 2015. El Anciano Alado del Edificio K de Tula, Hidalgo. Latin American Antiquity 26(1):49-63. Healan DM, Kerley JM, and Bey GJ. 1983. Excavation and Preliminary Analysis of an Obsidian Workshop in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 10(2):127-145. Jordan K. 2013. Serpents, skeletons, and ancestors?: the Tula Coatepantli revisited. Ancient Mesoamerica 24(02):243-274. Kristan-Graham C. 1993. The Business of Narrative at Tula: An Analysis of the Vestibule Frieze, Trade, and Ritual. Latin American Antiquity 4(1):3-21. Ringle WM, Gallareta Negron T, and Bey GJ. 1998. The return of Quetzalcoatl: Evidence for the spread of a world religion during the Epiclassic period. Ancient Mesoamerica 9:183-232. Stocker T, Jackson B, and Riffell H. 1986. Wheeled figurines from Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. Mexicon 8(4):69-73. Stocker TL, and Spence MW. 1973. Trilobal Eccentrics at Teotihuacan and Tula. American Antiquity 38(2):195-199.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Business Written Report Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business Written Report - Assignment Example The company’s products are widely distributed and available in approximately 190 countries in the world. However, one of the company’s largest brands includes axe, dove, omo, magnum, Rexona among others (Forbes, 2015). The company has specific codes that are used in identifying its products all over the world. The company’s turnover is expected to be worth billions of dollars annually. This is because it operates in more than 190 countries where its products are consumed on a daily basis. This has been achieved through aggressive marketing and advertising of its products all over the world. Annually, the company allocates subsequent amounts on adverting of various brands in the competitive global market. Further, the company is an equal opportunity employer all over the world. The company has established various plants in different locations in the world where people with different knowledge, skills and expertise are employed (Unilever, 2015). The company believes in diversification as human capital development. This is evident from the various platforms and opportunities such offering internships and future leadership development programs that are offered annually. Ownership: The Company is a merger founded in 1929 by a number of partners who were later preceded by Lever Brothers ad Magarive Unie (Unilever, 2015). Initially, it was margarine and soapmaker. However, in the 20th century, the company diversified into manufacturing other consumer goods. All over the world, the company has made numerous acquisitions in order to establish its plants. The company specialization has changed over the years. This has been greatly influenced by the owners and the trends and dynamics as per that time. In the business world today, consumer needs, tastes and preferences continue to change (Perderson, 2008). Therefore, the company must put measures and structures in place to ensure that it can gain the maximum from the available